Sunday, August 31, 2014

31 August - History and Importance of the Day

Kyrgyzstan Independence Day
Malaysia National Day
Trinidad & Tobago Independence Day

1751 - British troops under Robert Clive occupied Arcot, India
ref: Charles McFarlane, Our Empire in India

1897 - Thomas Edison patented his movie camera (Kinetograph)
Patent for Kinetographic Camera

1907 - Britain & Russia signed treaty with Afghanistan, Persia & Tibet

1907 - Britain, Russia & France formed Triple Entente

1957 - Malaysia gained independence from Britain

1962 - Trinidad & Tobago gained independence from Britain (National Day)

1978 - Constitution adopted by Sri Lanka

1991 - The Kyrgyz parliament accepted the declaration on independence of Kyrgyzstan and became an independent state

1994 - Pentium computer beat world chess champion Gari Kasparov

2007 - Deven Sharma was made Head of S&P Ratings company.

History Events of 31 August - Video



Thursday, August 28, 2014

1864 Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field.

The convention lasted from 8 to 22 August 1864. 16 states were represented.

Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded in Armies in
the Field. Geneva, 22 August 1864

10 articles were proposed and accepted at the end of the convention on 22 August 1864

Article 1. Ambulances and military hospitals shall be recognized as neutral, and as such,
protected and respected by the belligerents as long as they accommodate wounded and sick.
Neutrality shall end if the said ambulances or hospitals should be held by a military force.

Art. 2. Hospital and ambulance personnel, including the quarter-master's staff, the medical,
administrative and transport services, and the chaplains, shall have the benefit of the same
neutrality when on duty, and while there remain any wounded to be brought in or assisted.

Art. 3. The persons designated in the preceding Article may, even after enemy occupation,
continue to discharge their functions in the hospital or ambulance with which they serve, or may
withdraw to rejoin the units to which they belong.
When in these circumstances they cease from their functions, such persons shall be
delivered to the enemy outposts by the occupying forces.

Art. 4. The material of military hospitals being subject to the laws of war, the persons attached to
such hospitals may take with them, on withdrawing, only the articles which are their own
personal property.

Ambulances, on the contrary, under similar circumstances, shall retain their equipment.

Art. 5. Inhabitants of the country who bring help to the wounded shall be respected and shall
remain free. Generals of the belligerent Powers shall make it their duty to notify the inhabitants
of the appeal made to their humanity, and of the neutrality which humane conduct will confer.
The presence of any wounded combatant receiving shelter and care in a house shall ensure
its protection. An inhabitant who has given shelter to the wounded shall be exempted from
billeting and from a portion of such war contributions as may be levied.

Art. 6. Wounded or sick combatants, to whatever nation they may belong, shall be collected and
cared for.
Commanders-in-Chief may hand over immediately to the enemy outposts enemy combatants
wounded during an engagement, when circumstances allow and subject to the agreement of
both parties.
Those who, after their recovery, are recognized as being unfit for further service, shall be
The others may likewise be sent back, on condition that they shall not again, for the duration
of hostilities, take up arms.
Evacuation parties, and the personnel conducting them, shall be considered as being
absolutely neutral.

Art. 7. A distinctive and uniform flag shall be adopted for hospitals, ambulances and evacuation
parties. It should in all circumstances be accompanied by the national flag.
An armlet may also be worn by personnel enjoying neutrality but its issue shall be left to the
military authorities.
Both flag and armlet shall bear a red cross on a white ground.

Art. 8. The implementing of the present Convention shall be arranged by the
Commanders-in-Chief of the belligerent armies following the instructions of their respective
Governments and in accordance with the general principles set forth in this Convention.

Art. 9. The High Contracting Parties have agreed to communicate the present Convention with
an invitation to accede thereto to Governments unable to appoint Plenipotentiaries to the
International Conference at Geneva. The Protocol has accordingly been left open.

Art. 10. The present Convention shall be ratified and the ratifications exchanged at Berne, within
the next four months, or sooner if possible.


22 August - History and Importance of the Day

1559 - Spanish archbishop Bartholome de Carranza arrested as heretic

1639 - Madras (now Chennai), India, was founded by the British East India Company on a sliver of land bought from local Nayak rulers.

1642 - Civil War in England began between Royalists & Parliament

1770 - James Cook's expedition landed on the east coast of Australia.

1787 - John Fitch's steamboat completes its tests, years before Fulton

1791 - Haitian Slave Revolution began under voodoo priest Boukman

1849 - The first air raid in history; Austria launched pilotless balloons against the Italian city of Venice.

1864 - An agreement was signed at the Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded in Armies in the Field. Geneva, 22 August 1864. 16 states attended the convention.
150th anniversary was celebrated on 22 August 2014.

1894 - Mahatma Gandhi formed the Natal Indian Congress (NIC) in order to fight discrimination against Indian traders in Natal

1901 - Cadillac Motor Company was founded.

1910 - Japan annexed Korea.

Important History Events of 22 August - Video



29 August - History and Importance of the Day

   Picture Source:

International Day against Nuclear Tests

1526 - Hungary conquered by Turks in Battle of Mohács

1825 - Portugal recognized the Independence of Brazil.

1854 - Self-governing windmill patented by Daniel Halladay. Patent Number 11,629 dt. 29 August 1854.

1910 - Japan changed Korea's name to Chōsen and appointed a governor-general to rule its new colony.

1949 - USSR also performed its first nuclear test

1957 - US Congress passed Civil Rights Act of 1957

Important History Events of 29 August - Video



28 August - History and Importance of the Day

1189 - Third Crusade: the Crusaders begin the Siege of Acre under Guy of Lusignan

1521 - Turkish sultan Suleiman I's troops occupy Belgrade

1830 - 1st locomotive in US, "Tom Thumb", runs from Baltimore to Ellicotts Mill

1864 - The first Geneva Convention, governing rules of warfare, signed by 26 nations. Wrong entry. It was signed on 22 August 1864

1898 - Caleb Bradham renamed his carbonated soft drink "Pepsi-Cola". The name is based on the combination of two ingredients, “pepsin” and “cola”. He believed his drink was “healthy” as it aided in digestion much like the pepsin enzyme does. He bought the brand name from another company that went broke.

  Toyota Prius C - pic source:

1937 - Toyota Motors became an independent company. Earlier it was part of Toyoda Automatic Loom Works, Ltd..



Wednesday, August 27, 2014

30 August - History and Importance of the Day

International day of the Victims of Enforced Disappearance

Kazakhstan Constitution Day

1781 - French fleet of 24 ships under Comte de Grasse defeat British under Admiral Graves at battle of Chesapeake Capes in American Revolutionary War

1835 - Melbourne, Australia is founded.

1914 - 1st German plane bombs Paris, 2 killed

1918 - Assassination attempt on Lenin - Fanya Kaplan shoots at Lenin, new leader of Soviet Russia, attempting to assassinate him

1962 - Japan conducted a test of the NAMC YS-11, its only successful commercial aircraft from before or after the war.

1993 - 150,000,000 millionth visitor to Eiffel Tower

1995 - As a result of the national referendum, the Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the supreme national law, was adopted.

History Events of 30 August - Video



27 August - History and Importance of the Day

Moldova National Day

479 BC - Persian forces led by Mardonius are routed by Pausanias, the Spartan commander of the Greek army in the Battle of Plataea.

1610 - Polish King Wladyslaw crowned king of Russia

1689 - The Treaty of Nerchinsk was signed by Russia and the Qing empire.

1789 - French National Assembly issued "Declaration of Rights of Man & Citizen"

1828 - Uruguay gained independence during Brazil-Argentina peace talks

1991 - Moldova adopted the Declaration of Independence from the Soviet Union.

2008 - Barack Obama became the first African-American to be nominated by a major political party for President of the United States

Barack Obma's Nomination Acceptance Speech in the Democratic Party National Convention

C Span Upload

Historical Events on 27 August - Video


Monday, August 25, 2014

The First Council of Nicaea - 325 AD

The First Council of Nicaea was convened by Emperor Constantine the Great upon the recommendations of a synod led by Hosius of Córdoba in the Eastertide of 325. To most bishops, the teachings of Arius were heretical and dangerous to the salvation of souls. In the summer of 325, the bishops of all provinces were summoned to Nicaea, as a convenient place accessible to delegates of many countries, particularly those of Asia Minor, Georgia, Armenia, Syria, Palestine, Egypt, Greece, and Thrace.

This was the first general council in the history of the Church since the Apostolic Council of Jerusalem. The Apostolic council established the conditions upon which Gentiles could join the Church. The Council of Nicaea  has to define revealed doctrine more precisely in response to a challenge from the teachings of Arius.

1800 bishops of the Christian church (about 1000 in the east and 800 in the west) were invited but a smaller number attended. Many writers mentioned the number as 318. This number 318 is preserved in the liturgies of the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria.

In the people who attended, there were some  supporters of Arius including Secundus of Ptolemais, Theonus of Marmarica, Zphyrius, and Dathes, all of whom hailed from the Libyan Pentapolis,  Eusebius of Nicomedia, Paulinus of Tyrus, Actius of Lydda, Menophantus of Ephesus, and Theognus of Nicaea.

The agenda included:

The Arian question regarding the relationship between God the Father and the Son (not only in his incarnate form as Jesus, but also in his nature before the creation of the world); i.e., are the Father and Son one in divine purpose only or also one in being?
The date of celebration of Pascha/Easter
The Meletian schism
Various matters of church discipline, which resulted in twenty canons
Church structures: focused on the ordering of the episcopacy
Dignity of the clergy: issues of ordination at all levels and of suitability of behavior and background for clergy
Reconciliation of the lapsed: establishing norms for public repentance and penance
Readmission to the Church of heretics and schismatics: including issues of when reordination and/or rebaptism were to be required
Liturgical practice: including the place of deacons, and the practice of standing at prayer during liturgy

The council was formally opened May 20, in the central structure of the imperial palace at Nicaea.

Eusebius of Caesarea called to mind the baptismal creed of his own diocese at Caesarea at Palestine, as a form of reconciliation. The majority of the bishops agreed. For some time, scholars thought that the original Nicene Creed was based on this statement of Eusebius. Today, most scholars think that the Creed is derived from the baptismal creed of Jerusalem, as Hans Lietzmann proposed.

The orthodox bishops won approval of every one of their proposals regarding the Creed. After being in session for an entire month, the council promulgated on June 19 the original Nicene Creed.

The Creed was amended to a new version by the First Council of Constantinople in 381.

25 August - History and Importance of the Day

Uruguay Independence Day

Important Events of the Day
325 -  Council of Nicaea ends with adoption of the Nicene Creed establishing the doctrine of the Holy Trinity
1499 - Battle at Sapienza: Turkish fleet beat Venetians
1580 - Battle of Alcantara, Spain defeated Portugal
1609 - Galileo demonstrates his 1st telescope in Venice to  lawmakers
1704 - Battle of Malaga: French vs English & Dutch fleet
1825 - Uruguay declared independence from Brazil (National Day)
1830 - Belgium revolts against Netherlands and begins the Belgian Revolution
1894 - Shibasaburo Kitasato discovered the infectious agent of the bubonic plague. Paper published in  in The Lancet.
1912 - The Kuomintang, the Chinese nationalist party, is founded.
1919 - 1st scheduled passenger service by airplane began between Paris and London
1920 - Russia suffers a decisive defeat in the battle of Warsaw against Poland
1940 - First British night bombing of Germany (Berlin)
1940 - Lithuania, Latvia & Estonia incorporated into Soviet Union
1943 - Lord Louis Mountbatten appointed Supreme Allied Commander in SE Asia
1944 - Gen De Gaulle returns to Paris/walks Champs Elysees - Paris liberated from Nazi occupation (Freedom Tuesday)
1948 - Bradman scored 150 in 212 minutes in his last innings at Lord's
1967 - Paraguay accepted its constitution
1973 - Zambia adopted constitution
1979 - Somali adopted constitution
1987 - Dow Jones industrial stock avg reaches record 2722.42
1990 - UN security council authorized military action against Iraq
2012 - 330 people are killed in the conflict in the Syrian civil war