395 – Emperor Theodosius I dies in Milan, the Roman Empire is re-divided into an eastern and a western half. The Eastern Roman Empire is centered in Constantinople under Arcadius, son of Theodosius, and the Western Roman Empire in Mediolanum under Honorius, his brother (aged 10).
1377 – Pope Gregory XI moves the Papacy back to Rome from Avignon.
1608 – Emperor Susenyos surprises an Oromo army at Ebenat; his army reportedly kills 12,000 Oromo at the cost of 400 of his men.
1773 – Captain James Cook and his crew become the first Europeans to sail below the Antarctic Circle.
1941 – Franco-Thai War: French forces inflict a decisive defeat over the Royal Thai Navy.
2002 – Mount Nyiragongo erupts in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, displacing an estimated 400,000 people.
1706 – Benjamin Franklin, American publisher and politician, 6th President of Pennsylvania (d. 1790)
1911 – George Joseph Stigler, American economist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1991)